The Travel Health and Vaccine Specialists

Polio: vaccine advice

Level 2

Practise special precautions

Updated: June 28, 2019


  • Ethiopia has been added to the list of countries with outbreaks of polio.

Original publication date: March 07, 2018

Current situation

Polio remains consistently present (endemic) in three countries:

  • Afghanistan
  • Nigeria
  • Pakistan

Outbreaks of polio are also currently occurring in:

  • Angola
  • Cameroon
  • Central African Republic
  • the Democratic Republic of Congo
  • Ethiopia
  • Indonesia
  • Iran
  • Mozambique
  • Niger
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Somalia

The Global Polio Eradication Initiative provides an interactive map of countries with confirmed cases of polio.

About polio

Polio (Poliomyeltis) is a highly contagious disease. It can cause paralysis and death. It is spread through the feces of a person who is infected with the virus. It enters the body through your mouth, mainly from food or water that is contaminated with feces.

There is no cure for polio, but it can be prevented by vaccination. Some countries may require that you show proof of polio vaccination to enter or leave their country. The International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis is the official document used to show proof of vaccination against polio. This is the only document accepted as proof of vaccination. It is currently available at Yellow Fever Vaccination Centres in Canada.


Consult a health care professional or visit a travel health clinic preferably 6 weeks before you travel.  Tell them where you will be travelling and for how long.


If you are travelling to a country where there is a risk of polio, get vaccinated against polio if you:  

Infants and children under 18 years of age:

Adults (18 years and older):

  • Get a booster dose if you have received all the recommended doses of polio vaccine according to provincial/territorial vaccination schedule and have not received a booster dose against polio since your 18th birthday.
  • Get the remaining doses before leaving if you have not completed your polio vaccine series.
  • Get fully vaccinated against polio if you have not received any vaccines against polio.

Find out where polio is circulating and if you need proof of vaccination

  • See Travel advice and advisories by country
    • Select your destination and click “Go!”.
    • Click the Health tab.
    • Click the Vaccines link and scroll down to Polio for detailed information.
  • Remember to check the health information for each country you plan to visit.

During your trip, eat and drink safely

Always take precautions with food and water to avoid getting sick.

  • Only eat foods that are well cooked and served hot.
  • Drink water that has been boiled, disinfected or is in a commercially sealed bottle.

Practise good hand hygiene

  • Wash your hands frequently. Use soap and warm running water for at least 20 seconds:
    • before eating
    • before and after handling food
    • after using the bathroom
    • after changing diapers
  • Use alcohol-based hand sanitizer if soap and water are not available.

Information for health care professionals

The Committee to Advise on Tropical Medicine and Travel (CATMAT) has developed a statement on poliovirus and the international traveller in accordance with the World Health Organization’s (WHO) temporary recommendations to provide guidance for health care professionals who are preparing travellers to visit areas with a risk of polio.

On May 29, 2019 the WHO released an update regarding the international spread of polio and temporary recommendations. The situation is reviewed every 3 months.

For the latest updates on WHO temporary recommendations please consult the Global Eradication Initiative.

Registration of Canadians Abroad

Sign up with the Registration of Canadians Abroad service to stay connected with the Government of Canada in case of an emergency abroad or an emergency at home.Related links

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